Important Safety Information & Indication
Esbriet® (pirfenidone) is indicated for the treatment of
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
Important Safety Information
Elevated liver enzymes: Patients treated with Esbriet had a higher incidence of ALT and/or AST elevations of ≥3x ULN (3.7%) compared with placebo patients (0.8%). In some cases, these have been associated with concomitant elevations in bilirubin. No Esbriet-related cases of liver transplant or death due to liver failure have been reported. However, combined elevations of transaminases and bilirubin without evidence of obstruction is considered an important predictor of severe liver injury that could lead to death or the need for a transplant.
Measure ALT, AST, and bilirubin levels prior to initiating Esbriet, then monthly for the first 6 months, and every 3 months thereafter. Dosage modifications or interruption may be necessary.
Photosensitivity reaction or rash: Patients treated with Esbriet had a higher incidence of photosensitivity reactions (9%) compared with placebo patients (1%). Patients should avoid or minimize exposure to sunlight and sunlamps, regularly use sunscreen (SPF 50 or higher), wear clothing that protects against sun exposure, and avoid concomitant medications that cause photosensitivity. Dosage reduction or discontinuation may be necessary.
Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders: Patients treated with Esbriet had a higher incidence of nausea, diarrhea, dyspepsia, vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and abdominal pain. GI events required dose reduction or interruption in 18.5% of 2403 mg/day Esbriet-treated patients, compared with 5.8% of placebo patients; 2.2% of 2403 mg/day Esbriet-treated patients discontinued treatment due to a GI event, compared with 1.0% of placebo patients. The most common (>2%) GI events leading to dosage reduction or interruption were nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and dyspepsia. Dosage modifications may be necessary.
Adverse reactions: The most common adverse reactions (≥10%) were nausea, rash, abdominal pain, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhea, fatigue, headache, dyspepsia, dizziness, vomiting, anorexia, GERD, sinusitis, insomnia, weight decreased, and arthralgia.
CYP1A2 inhibitors: Concomitant use of Esbriet and strong CYP1A2 inhibitors (e.g., fluvoxamine) is not recommended, as CYP1A2 inhibitors increase systemic exposure of Esbriet. If discontinuation of the CYP1A2 inhibitor prior to starting Esbriet is not possible, dosage reductions of Esbriet are recommended. Monitor for adverse reactions and consider discontinuation of Esbriet.
Concomitant use of ciprofloxacin (a moderate CYP1A2 inhibitor) at the dosage of 750 mg BID and Esbriet are not recommended. If this dose of ciprofloxacin cannot be avoided, dosage reductions of Esbriet are recommended, and patients should be monitored.
Moderate or strong inhibitors of both CYP1A2 and other CYP isoenzymes involved in the metabolism of Esbriet should be avoided during treatment.
CYP1A2 inducers: Concomitant use of Esbriet and strong CYP1A2 inducers should be avoided, as CYP1A2 inducers may decrease the exposure and efficacy of Esbriet.
Mild to moderate hepatic impairment: Esbriet should be used with caution in patients with Child Pugh Class A and B. Monitor for adverse reactions and consider dosage modification or discontinuation of Esbriet as needed.
Severe hepatic impairment: Esbriet is not recommended for patients with Child Pugh Class C. Esbriet has not been studied in this patient population.
Mild (CLcr 50–80 mL/min), moderate (CLcr 30–50 mL/min), or severe (CLcr <30 mL/min) renal impairment: Esbriet should be used with caution. Monitor for adverse reactions and consider dosage modification or discontinuation of Esbriet as needed.
End-stage renal disease requiring dialysis: Esbriet is not recommended. Esbriet has not been studied in this patient population.
Smokers: Smoking causes decreased exposure to Esbriet which may affect efficacy. Instruct patients to stop smoking prior to treatment and to avoid smoking when using Esbriet.